Antiviral effect of Electrolyzed Reduced Water on SARS-CoV-2

Source: DocWire News Featured Reading - October 28, 2021


The inhibitory activity of Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW) against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is the etiological agent responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was tested in vitro on Vero E6 cells using a plaque assay. Infectious virus titers of cells treated with ERW 100%, 50% and 33.3% solutions and phosphate buffered saline (PBS, negative control) and exposed to the virus suspension for 60 seconds were 2.25, 2.65, 3.21 and 7.38, respectively. ERW has a high pH and low surface tension. It is considered that the alkaline property of ERW breaks down phospholipids and proteins of envelopes. The role of pH and reducibility on the virucidal effect of ERW should be further evaluated. This study provides a foundation for utilizing ERW as an effective antiviral aqueous solution in a variety of applications.

* Acidic electrolyzed water potently inactivates SARS-CoV-2 depending on the amount of free available chlorine contacting with the virus

Authors: Yohei Takeda, Hiroshi Uchiumi, Sachiko Matsuda, Haruko Ogawa

Source: PubMed - September 10, 2020

* Note: In addition to the alkalized Electrolyzed Reduced Water for drinking, medical-grade water ionizers also produce Acidic Electrolyzed Water, which is used topically only. Disinfectant-quality acidic ERW is produced by medical-grade water ionizers only.

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Electrolyzed Reduced Water scavenges active oxygen species and protects DNA from oxidative damage.

Authors: Shirahata S, Kabayama S, Nakano M, Miura T, Kusumoto K, Gotoh M, Hayashi H, Otsubo K, Morisawa S, Katakura Y.

Institute of Cellular Regulation Technology, Graduate School of Genetic Resources Technology, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.



Active oxygen species or free radicals are considered to cause extensive oxidative damage to biological macromolecules, which brings about a variety of diseases as well as aging. The ideal scavenger for active oxygen should be 'active hydrogen'. 'Active hydrogen' can be produced in reduced water near the cathode during electrolysis of water. Reduced water exhibits high pH, low dissolved oxygen (DO), extremely high dissolved molecular hydrogen (DH), and extremely negative redox potential (RP) values. Strongly electrolyzed-reduced water, as well as ascorbic acid, (+)-catechin and tannic acid, completely scavenged O.-2 produced by the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (HX-XOD) system in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). The superoxide dismutase (SOD)-like activity of reduced water is stable at 4 degrees C for over a month and was not lost even after neutralization, repeated freezing and melting, deflation with sonication, vigorous mixing, boiling, repeated filtration, or closed autoclaving, but was lost by opened autoclaving or by closed autoclaving in the presence of tungsten trioxide which efficiently adsorbs active atomic hydrogen. Water bubbled with hydrogen gas exhibited low DO, extremely high DH and extremely low RP values, as does reduced water, but it has no SOD-like activity. These results suggest that the SOD-like activity of reduced water is not due to the dissolved molecular hydrogen but due to the dissolved atomic hydrogen (active hydrogen). Although SOD accumulated H2O2 when added to the HX-XOD system, reduced water decreased the amount of H2O2 produced by XOD. Reduced water, as well as catalase and ascorbic acid, could directly scavenge H2O2. Reduce water suppresses single-strand breakage of DNA b active oxygen species produced by the Cu(II)-catalyzed oxidation of ascorbic acid in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that reduced water can scavenge not only O2.- and H2O2, but also 1O2 and .OH.

PMID: 9169001 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2006 Nov;135(2):133-44.

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Electrolyzed-reduced water protects against oxidative damage to DNA, RNA, and protein.

Authors: Lee MY, Kim YK, Ryoo KK, Lee YB, Park EJ.

Department of Genetic Engineering, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Chungnam 336-600, Korea.



The generation of reactive oxygen species is thought to cause extensive oxidative damage to various biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, and protein. In this study, the preventive, suppressive, and protective effects of in vitro supplementation with electrolyzed-reduced water on H2O2-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes were examined using a comet assay. Pretreatment, cotreatment, and posttreatment with electrolyzed-reduced water enhanced human lymphocyte resistance to the DNA strand breaks induced by H2O2 in vitro. Moreover, electrolyzed-reduced water was much more effective than diethylpyrocarbonate-treated water in preventing total RNA degradation at 4 and 25 degrees C. In addition, electrolyzed-reduced water completely prevented the oxidative cleavage of horseradish peroxidase, as determined using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Enhancement of the antioxidant activity of ascorbic acid dissolved in electrolyzed-reduced water was about threefold that of ascorbic acid dissolved in nonelectrolyzed deionized water, as measured by a xanthine-xanthine oxidase superoxide scavenging assay system, suggesting an inhibitory effect of electrolyzed reduced water on the oxidation of ascorbic acid.

PMID: 17159237 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

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The mechanism of the enhanced antioxidant effects against superoxide anion radicals of reduced water produced by electrolysis

Authors: Kokichi Hanaoka 1, Dongxu Sun, Richard Lawrence, Yoshinori Kamitani, Gabriel Fernandes

PMID: 14871602

DOI: 10.1016/j.bpc.2003.08.007



We reported that reduced water produced by electrolysis enhanced the antioxidant effects of proton donors such as ascorbic acid (AsA) in a previous paper. We also demonstrated that reduced water produced by electrolysis of 2 mM NaCl solutions did not show antioxidant effects by itself. We reasoned that the enhancement of antioxidant effects may be due to the increase of the ionic product of water as solvent. The ionic product of water (pKw) was estimated by measurements of pH and by a neutralization titration method. As an indicator of oxidative damage, Reactive Oxygen Species- (ROS) mediated DNA strand breaks were measured by the conversion of supercoiled phiX-174 RF I double-strand DNA to open and linear forms. Reduced water had a tendency to suppress single-strand breakage of DNA induced by reactive oxygen species produced by H2O2/Cu (II) and HQ/Cu (II) systems. The enhancement of superoxide anion radical dismutation activity can be explained by changes in the ionic product of water in the reduced water.

Electrochemically Reduced Water Protects Neural Cells from Oxidative Damage

Authors: Taichi Kashiwagi, Hanxu Yan, Takeki Hamasaki, Tomoya Kinjo, Noboru Nakamichi, Kiichiro Teruya, Shigeru Kabayama, Sanetaka Shirahata

Source: "Electrochemically Reduced Water Protects Neural Cells from Oxidative Damage", Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, vol. 2014, Article ID 869121, 18 pages, 2014.

DOI: 10.1155/2014/869121


Aging-related neurodegenerative disorders are closely associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stresses and their incidence tends to increase with aging. Brain is the most vulnerable to reactive species generated by a higher rate of oxygen consumption and glucose utilization compared to other organs. Electrochemically reduced water (ERW) was demonstrated to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in several cell types...When these cell lines were treated with ERW alone (0 μM H2O2) the number of viable cells did not increase compared to that of the controls (Figures 1(a) and 1(b)). Therefore, the results indicate that ERW suppresses neuronal cell death caused by H2O2-induced oxidative damage.

...ERW was found to protect N1E-115, PC12, SFME, and MCCNP cells from oxidative stresses caused by H2O2, glutamate, and SNP treatments. This neuronal cell protection stemmed from the ROS specific scavenging ability of dissolved hydrogen and Pt nps in the ERW. The present communication provides encouraging data for the therapeutic applicability of ERW against NDs*.

*Neurodegenerative Disorders

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The neuroprotective effects of electrolyzed reduced water and its model water containing molecular hydrogen and Pt nanoparticles

Authors: Yan, H., Kashiwaki, T., Hamasaki, T. et al.
Source: The neuroprotective effects of electrolyzed reduced water and its model water containing molecular hydrogen and Pt nanoparticles. BMC Proc 5, P69 (2011).

DOI: 10.1186/1753-6561-5-S8-P69


ERW significantly reduced the cell death induced by H2O2 pretreatment (Figure 1). ERW also scavenged the intracellular ROS and prevented the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production induced by ROS.

Open-label trial and randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of hydrogen-enriched water for mitochondrial and inflammatory myopathies

Authors: Ito, M., Ibi, T., Sahashi, K. et al.
Source: Open-label trial and randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of hydrogen-enriched water for mitochondrial and inflammatory myopathies. Med Gas Res 1, 24 (2011).

DOI: 10.1186/2045-9912-1-24


HEW* is effective for mitochondrial dysfunction in MM** and inflammatory processes in DM***. Hydrogen may have a threshold effect or a dose-response effect and 1.0 liter or more per day of HEW is likely to be required to exert beneficial effects.

*HEW: Hydrogen-Enriched Water

**MM: Mitochondrial Myopathies

***DM: Dermatomyositis

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Molecular Hydrogen as an Emerging Therapeutic Medical Gas for Neurodegenerative and Other Diseases



Effects of hydrogen have been reported in 63 disease models and human diseases ... Only two diseases of cerebral infarction and metabolic syndrome have been analyzed in both rodents and humans. Lack of any adverse effects of hydrogen enabled clinical studies even in the absence of animal studies. Some other human studies including Parkinson’s disease are currently in progress, and promising effects of hydrogen are expected to emerge for many other human diseases.

Electrochemically Reduced Water exerts superior reactive oxygen species scavenging activity in HT1080 cells than the equivalent level of hydrogen-dissolved water

Authors: Takeki Hamasaki, Gakuro Harada, Noboru Nakamichi, Shigeru Kabayama, Kiichiro Teruya, Bunshi Fugetsu, Wei Gong, Ichiro Sakata, Sanetaka Shirahata (2017)



We confirm that ERW possessed electrolysis intensity-dependent intracellular ROS-scavenging activity, and ERW exerts significantly superior ROS-scavenging activity in HT1080 cells than the equivalent level of hydrogen-dissolved water.

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Advanced Research on the Health Benefit of Reduced Water

Authors: Sanetaka Shirahata, Takeki Hamasaki, Kiichiro Teruya

Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan (2012)



Accumulating evidence has shown that reduced waters are health beneficial and they suppress oxidative stress-related diseases such as diabetes, cancer, arteriosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases, and the side effects of hemodialysis. The mechanisms of action of reduced water for scavenging ROS are considered to be complicated. ...ERW suppresses neural cell death by oxidative stress (Kashiwagi et al., 2005). Hydrogen-supplemented water also exhibits various anti-neurodegenerative disease effects...

Both ROS scavenging effect and immuno-modulation effect might be responsible for anti-cancer effect of Alkaline Reduced Water.


Electrolyzed Reduced Water is produced by an ISO 13485 (medically certified) water ionizer device. To learn how you can produce Electrolyzed Reduced Water in your own kitchen, Click here

Additional Resources

Molecular hydrogen is a novel antioxidant to efficiently reduce oxidative stress with potential for the improvement of mitochondrial diseases



Water: Nature’s Elixir for Healthy Aging and Brain Health


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